Provisions on Extradition of the 1961 and 1971 vs. 1988 Convention

Provisions on Extradition of the 1961 and 1971 vs. 1988 Convention

Compare and contrast the provisions on extradition of the 1961 and 1971 Conventions with those of the 1988 Convention. In what ways are they different? Would you expect the 1988 provisions to be more effective?

The international system for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances may be perceived as one of the most important achievements of the twentieth century as far as international cooperation is concerned (United Nations 2009, p. 3). The signing of the three main important treaties including the 1961 conventions, the 1971 convention and the 1988 conventions has contributed largely to this task. While some countries have not adhered to the three treaties, treaty adherence by all countries is important to the effective functioning of the international drug control system. This paper compares the provisions on extradition of the 1961 and 1971 with the provisions of 1988.
Like the 1961 and 1971 conventions, the 1988 convention requires parties to criminalize the intentional purchase, possession or cultivation of psychotropic substances and drugs. Building upon article 37 of the 1961 convention, 1988 convention also requires states to create offenses related to money laundering (Schabas & Bernaz 2010, p. 185).
On the other hand, parties to the 1961 convention are expected to limit exclusively to medical and scientific purposes the manufacture, production, import, export and distribution of trade in and use and possession of cannabis as is the case for any other drug under this scope (United Nations 2002, p. 39). Regretfully, from a scientific perspective, the scheduling arrangements for both the 1961 convention and the 1971 convention contain inconsistencies. For instance, cannabis and cannabis resin are narcotic drugs while some of their active ingredients are psychotropic substances while falling under a weaker control system. Similarly, there is no plant material controlled under the 1971 convention. Consequently, the raw materials ephedrine and khat remain uncontrolled. Their derivatives ephedrine and cathinone on the other hand are controlled under the 1971 convention and psychotropic substances of 1988.  


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